History of Vietnam Painting Industry And The World

HISTORY OF VIETNAM PAINTING INDUSTRY AND THE WORLD

Paint is considered as one of the indispensable materials in construction and decoration. Paint industry history dates back to a long time, over time paint products and technologies have been continuously improved.

HISTORY OF VIETNAM PAINTING INDUSTRY AND THE WORLD


1. Long history and development of the world paint industry. 

It can be said that paint production technology is one of the oldest technologies in the history of human development. Since ancient times, more than 25,000 years ago, many ancient communities around the world knew how to use natural materials to create the first decorative paint in human history. These early paints are mainly used to create paintings that reflect the daily life in caves or stone slabs, many of which still exist today.

Then came the period of ancient civilizations such as Egypt in the period from 3000 to 600 BC began to produce fine paint, and the Greeks and Romans created oil paint during the period. from 600 BC to 400 AD. This paint is both decorative and effective for the surface to be painted, but its colors are quite monotonous. However, until the 13th century, many other European countries did not know about  this paint production technology  . The turning point in the  history of the paint industry  began in the eighteenth century, together with the first scientific and technical revolution, promoting the construction of   professional paint factories to meet the increasing demand for paint. However  painted products At that time, the quality was not high with the ability to decorate and protect.

The paint industry  can only grow by leaps and bounds when it comes to the market for synthetic film-forming resins with high-quality organic pigments and especially the appearance of white powdered titanium dioxide powder. (TiO2) is the dominant pigment, reflecting the development of  the color coating industry . Paint industry development milestones   can be reflected as follows:

- 1923: Nitrocellulose resin, alkyd

- In 1924: TiO2 pigment

- 1928: Phenol resin is fat-soluble

- 1930: Amino Urea Formaldehyde Resin

- 1933: Vinyl chloride co-polymerization

- 1934: Oil-based emulsion resin

- 1936: Thermosetting Acrylic resin

- 1937: Polyurethane resin

- 1939: Amino melamin Formaldehyde resin

- 1944: Silicone-based paint

- In 1947: Epoxy resin

- 1950: PVA resin and Acrylic laquer

- Year 1955: Electrostatic powder coating

- 1958: Car paint acrylic laquer based on latex latex

- 1960: Water-based industrial paint

- In 1962: Anode style electrophoresis paint

- Year 1963: Curing paint by EB and UV rays

Through the process of research and development, the  history of the paint industry is  increasingly developing in the twentieth century up to now with many different paints produced along with the   improved paint production technologies. increase the effectiveness of protection and decoration while reducing costs and being safer for human health. In which more than 75% of current paint is  water-based to replace  oil-based paint  with more outstanding features and quality. The  coating technology today  may be mentioned as  technology cross ,  hybrid technology  or  technology nano coating  being applied and developed.

In the future, the challenge of  the  global paint industry has to solve the familiar problem of finding a solution that balances costs of energy and raw materials on the one hand and meets safety regulations. The government's environment, on the one hand, is a market requirement that the paint must be perfect at the best price. These challenges will create many opportunities for  the world paint industry to  research and implement new technology solutions, new materials and new products that are sure to also have a positive impact on development. further of this industry. 

In Vietnam , his father, from nearly  400 years  ago, knew how to use Vietnamese paint from natural gardenia to be used as decorative paint and to protect the wood quality of the worshiping statues, the anti-  "painting Gold lipstick ” , this protective paint has almost unchanged quality after hundreds of years of use, our paint is still considered as a high-quality material for the lacquer painting industry, which is popular both inside and outside. water or some fatty oils such as: tung oil and hybrid oil or resin from three-leaf pine that grows naturally in Vietnam, has long been processed into clear - varnish oil as “ Optical oil "is used to decorate and protect" conical hats "or" furniture ", interior and exterior.

However, the use of the aforementioned paint was only spontaneous from daily life needs, until 1913-1914 in Vietnam, there was an oil painting workshop in Hai Phong opened by the French with the brand Testudo continued. After a few years, the first Vietnamese paint company "Nguyen Son Ha Paint Company" was established and then there were paint firms in Hanoi, Thang Long, Gecko. In particular, it should be noted that the paint RESISTANCO of Nguyen Son Ha paint company is very popular with domestic and foreign consumers, this can be said to be the first largest paint company in Vietnam at that time and left behind its calendar. Until today, Hai Phong Paint Joint Stock Company developed from a land called Phu Ha Paint Enterprise (descendant of Mr. Nguyen Son Ha). So it can be said that: Mr. Nguyen Son Ha is the ancestor of  Vietnam's Son industry .

2. Development history of paint industry in Vietnam.

Vietnam's paint industry  can have a starting point of development from 1914 to 1920 with the appearance of a number of oil painting factories in Vietnam, of which the most prominent is the paint company of Mr. Nguyen Son Ha. However, due to the historical and social context of Vietnam, it was not until 1975 that it was truly an independent and territorial unified country with full conditions for socio-economic development and gradual development of  Vietnam's paint industry.  can be divided into the following stages:

2.1. From 1914 to 1954: There were 3 big Vietnamese paint firms in 3 big city areas: 

- Hanoi: Thai Binh Paint Company - Cau Dien, Hanoi (currently Hanoi Son Chemical Joint Stock Company)

- Hai Phong: Nguyen Son Ha Paint Company - currently is Hai Phong Paint Joint Stock Company.

- Saigon (later Ho Chi Minh City): Bach Tuyet Paint Company founded by Mr. Bui Duy Can (a collaborator of Mr. Nguyen Son Ha) founded, currently Bach Tuyet Paint Joint Stock Company .

At this stage, the main products are oil paints, solvent-based alkyd paints with simple technology, low quality paint, mainly for construction decoration paints, high-quality industrial paints. import. In addition, in the free zone during the war against the French, there were also paint production facilities in Vietnam, but the main products were oil paints from natural materials available in Vietnam such as: turpentine, chili oil ...

2.2. Period 1954 - 1975: The historical background of the country temporarily divided the North and the South with different political regimes and thus different economic development conditions (including the development of the paint industry). , detail:

- The North: There are 3 state-owned paint factories with industrial production scale:

+ General Paint Factory of Hanoi (newly established) managed by the General Department of Chemicals.

+ Chemical Factory Son Hanoi (formerly Son Thai Binh Company - Cau Dien) managed by the Hanoi Department of Industry.

+ Son Hai Phong Factory (formerly Phu Ha Paint Factory) managed by Hai Phong Department of Industry.

The main product is natural resin oil paint in Alkyd paint (imported alkyd resin material), mainly used for civil and decorative industries, low quality, outdated technology, and low production quantity. not enough to meet the requirements (due to import restrictions on raw materials because the source of foreign currency is not enough).

- The South: There are 16 large and small paint companies that produce all kinds of paint with a total output of about 7,000 tons / year (according to the General Department of Chemicals - April 28, 1976) Most of the raw materials are imported. with high quality, modern technology in 1960, including large factories and typical products:

+ Bach Tuyet and Hue Phat Paint Factory (now known as Bach Tuyet Paint Company): main products are alkyd paint used for construction industry and not a large amount of Epoxy paint.

+ A Dong, A Chau, Viet Dieu, Vinh Phat Paint Factory: After 1975, these factories had a plastic coating company under the management of the General Department of Chemicals, called A Dong Paint Enterprise and now Son A Dong Joint Stock Company, main products are oil paint, alkyd paint and water paint for construction decoration paint industry.

Some other painting machines  specialized in manufacturing  all kinds of  industrial paints  is a high quality paint dry wood faster root N / C (nitrocellose), paint refurbished cars, marine paint ... in the carrier coating a coating companies but Small but still existing until now is Tu Tuong Paint Company.

2.3. The period of 1976 - 1989.

The development characteristics of the paint industry in this period marked the common difficulties of the economy after the war of reunification. It was a period of economic subsidy, although in 1986 the economy started to start developing with a breakthrough "innovation", but the  paint industry  was still developing stagnant until 1989.

- Paint products for domestic consumption are only  oil paint , absolutely no  water-based paints . Houses and constructions are decorated only by painting with lime water.

-  Synthetic resin paints  with high quality and good used for the Alkyd, Epoxy industries  ... are only produced in small quantity according to the foreign currency limit for imported raw materials.

- The type of  oil-based paint natural resin  with low quality is produced with more number of synthetic resin coatings for film-forming resin supply available in the country is abundant and cheap, such as turpentine.

However, the output of paint production is also limited because it is not enough to meet the number of other important materials of  the paint industry  such as solvents, pigments ... which need to be imported in foreign currency. To summarize the development characteristics of  the paint industry  in this period are:

- The total output of paint is less than 10,000 tons / year, the supply does not meet demand, the paints of good quality are distributed according to the norms and subsidized prices managed by the State, the paints with low quality ( oil painting style) is also distributed "loosely", but inclined to the administrative mechanism of "ask and give" to both producers and consumers from the management and distribution agencies of the State.

- The number of paint companies and factories are all state-owned: In the North, there are still 3 paint companies (2 in Hanoi and 1 in Hai Phong) as in the period 1954 - 1975, 1 more workshop. small navy paint production; In the Central region, there is a small paint factory owned by Da Nang Chemical Engineering Company under the General Department of Chemicals; In the South there is a Dong Nai Paint Company (renovated from a private paint company Hong Phat established in early 1975 that has not yet produced in time) owned by Dong Nai Industry Department.

+ 4 large state-owned paint factories are Plastic Paint Company, A Dong, Vinh Phat, Viet Dieu (later merged with the common name of A Dong Paint Factory)

+ A large paint factory and has the most prestigious brand name in Saigon and Ho Chi Minh City. Ho Chi Minh was later named Bach Tuyet, owned by Ho Chi Minh City Industrial Property.

+ Small paint factory of the City Chemical Engineering Company. Ho Chi Minh under General Chemical Department (named Nam Son before 1975 after 1990 is the brand "Liksho")

In total, in the period of 1976-1990, there were 12 companies - paint production enterprises nationwide  large and small are owned by the state. The factories with large capacity only produce in moderation due to insufficient raw materials (depending on import, most of them process for the State Ministry of Materials according to the committed quality, according to the amount of raw materials distributed, the products delivered to Meanwhile, with the sensitivity of some "cleverly managed" people in the paint market, a series of private paint complexes and establishments were born to meet almost all oil paints are of low quality for consumers, and in return consumers are willing to buy to "use", regardless of the quality because it takes 3-6 months to know when finished painting If this situation persists for a few more years, the Vietnamese paint industry will have a serious decline in product quality - technology, number of reputable paint manufacturers in the market and so on. Fortunately, the situation got worse only in a short time from 1982 to 1986. Since 1986, with the policy of "renewing" the entire economic and social structure, Vietnam has made important reforms in terms of economic and sectoral development. Vietnamese paint has really transformed into new development since 1990.

2.4. 1990 - 2008 period.

In 1986, the Vietnamese economy began to enter the "doi moi" period with the characteristics of the market economy, but the positive changes of the market economy, but the positive changes of the paint industry Starting from 1990 to enter the process of integration and development with the international region and gradually stabilizing development continuously up to now (2008) It is possible to summarize the historical development of  Vietnam's paint industry.  in the period 1990 - 2008 as follows:

- Integration process (1990 - 1993)

The average consumption (mainly decorative paint) is about 10,000 tons / year. The main products are domestically produced: alkyd oil paint, product quality and technology: not high, not meeting the requirements for quantity - quality and type of paint (especially water-based decorative paint and paint industry). Appeared brands of famous paint firms in the region and internationally such as: ICI, Nippon, Akzonobel, Jotun, Interpaint, Thai Toa, Uraiphanich ... Vietnamese brands: by 9 paint companies and factories. in the period 1976 - 1986 (in which 3 paint factories of the plastic coating company were dissolved and merged with A Dong Paint).

- A breakthrough in investment (1993 - 1997)

Advantage:

Average GDP growth is 8.8% / year.

+ Construction industry's strong growth rate is a positive factor for the development of paint industry.

+ Consumption: skyrocketing over the years: 10,000 tons - 1993. 25,000 tons - 1996. 40,000 tons - 1997. Decorative paint accounts for 80% of consumption, ship paint and protection make up 20%. consumption.

Foreign investment in paint reaches about 90 million USD: 20 foreign paint companies establish joint ventures with Vietnam or 100% foreign capital, especially companies with great names in national paint. The aforementioned fact is present.

Investment by domestic painters: also at an encouraging level, in addition to Vietnamese units investing in the proportion of joint ventures with foreign paint companies, Vietnamese firms also invest. about 5 million USD to set up a new factory to expand the factory, install new equipment, produce new products (mostly water-based paints), buy foreign technology (for example, painting of ships and protection) .

As a result, with this breakthrough investment inflow from abroad, leading to a strong transformation of domestic investment, the quality of paint technology in Vietnam has been "changed flesh" and created product lines with quality. quality according to market requirements. Since then, it is a very important foundation for a leap and steady development for the following years, especially from 2000 onwards.

- Stable development process before challenges (1997-1999).

+ Vietnam's economic development challenge: Southeast Asia's financial crisis (1997-1999), although Vietnam has been less affected, its growth slowed down.

+ In that context, the Vietnamese paint industry still achieves the growth rate of 15-20% per year and by the end of 1999, the Vietnamese paint industry has recovered at a high speed starting in 2000 and the following years. .

- High speed development from 2000 - 2007.

+ Historical background: Southeast Asian countries have overcome the financial crisis and the economy begins to recover and develop stably. Vietnam's economy is less affected by this crisis. Although its growth has slowed down, it is very stable and increasingly developing stronger.

+ Vietnam's Paint Industry, after achieving stable development in the challenging period of the financial crisis in Southeast Asia (1997 - 1999) with the growth rate fluctuating from 15 to 20% per year, starts from 2000 to 2007 is a process of high-speed development along with the continuous growth of the Vietnamese economy with the following development characteristics:

Strongly develop in output and types of paints: Decorative paint accounts for a large proportion, with an average growth of 25% per year, and paints for ships, protection and industrial paints are increasingly developing according to market requirements.

By 2007, it was present in Vietnam, most of the world's major paint firms in the form of 100% foreign capital investment or processing and production cooperation with Vietnamese Paint Companies. In addition, many Vietnamese paint companies (in the form of joint stock or privately owned 100% Vietnamese capital also boldly expand or build new factories, invest in new technology equipment, improve the quality of competitive paint products. The high-speed development in new technology output and product quality enhancement created a breathtaking picture of Vietnam's paint industry development in this period. The market share of paints in Vietnam by 2007 reached an average of "eight pounds half a pound" between major brands regardless of "foreign" or "domestic".

The product line with the latest technology in the world and the region is water-based decorative paint using high-quality nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder which has been manufactured and sold in the market by many Vietnamese paint companies or paints. Industrial water-based industrial products from high quality epoxy and polyurethane have also been produced and marketed according to the trend of environmentally friendly products. However, the number of requests for use is not much due to high product prices.

The number of paint manufacturers started to grow strongly: in 2002 there were 60 enterprises - 2004: 120 enterprises - 2006: 168 enterprises - 2008: 187 enterprises - 2009 (according to updated statistics yet). tested): about 250 businesses.

General comments on the market share and market share division of Vietnam paint found that:

+ Until 2008, foreign-invested enterprises (more than 30 enterprises) still accounted for 60% of the market share, the remaining 40% were Vietnamese enterprises.

+  Paints decorative  accounted for a large proportion of the volume (64-66%) of total volume but low value, corresponding to (41-45%) in value.

With the feature of high-speed development in this period having an average growth rate of 15-20% per year, the number of paint manufacturing enterprises is increasing, Vietnam has become a "hot spot" to attract investment from other countries. regionally and internationally entering  the paint industry .

Since then, there have been many  Vietnamese paint manufacturing companies  established, including  KPAINT  and these brands have quickly caught up with the world paint industry. The paint market in Vietnam is currently the competition of many big foreign brands such as Dulux, Mykolor, Nippon, Jotun ... and the domestic paint brands have been confirmed such as Jonux, Kova, ... Up to now. , Vietnam has about 650 paint trading and production enterprises with the total annual paint volume of nearly 260 million liters, of which  decorative paint  accounts for the majority with about 190 million liters / year.

                                                                                                   Statistics by: Listpaint - PaintInfo - Checklist

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